While the physical geography of the state has remained largely unaltered since 1823, the way that people use the land around them has changed significantly. Westward expansion, the livestock industry, and the discovery of oil all helped to alter the face of our great state. Students in grades four through eight will explore the physical and cultural geography of Texas in relation to such concepts as scale, direction, land formations, population and regions. Objectives – A. Examine historical photos, drawings, maps and other primary source documents pertaining to the Texas Rangers. B. Analyze how the effects of migration, industrialization and urbanization have impacted the responsibilities of the Texas Rangers. Consider the impact of these phenomena on the tools and modes of transportation of the Rangers. C. Recognize, through reasoning and critical thinking, how immigration, economic variables and physical geography determined the location of historic Ranger outposts as well as modern Ranger company headquarters.